Sat

18

Jul

2015

Readings in Q2-'15

二十一、Jennifer Pitts. "The Global in Enlightenment Historical Thought." A Companion to Global Historical Thought, 2014:184-196. 启蒙时代(18世纪)欧洲开始有“全球史”的一个原因是与与世界地图的绘制有关;那个时代的史家对欧洲的发达,比较能与欧洲的全球商业联系(如:发现新大陆)挂钩。两类全球史:关于人类作为物种的“自然”“哲学”历史(此多用比较方法);关于全球的(商业)联系(关于后者,提到Robertson的印度史)。启蒙时代已经明确知道欧洲的文明发展是基于欧洲人在世界其他地方的暴力野蛮行为,因此历史书写同时带有某程度对当代欧洲(商业)帝国的道德批判。提到一些Kant和Adam Smith有趣的quotes。欧洲的"parochial universalism"。19世纪黑格尔的“进步”目的论、和马克思对资本力量的破坏性的论述,两者都有其启蒙时代的源头。

关于伏尔泰:"...Voltaire wrote explicitly in response to the tradition of universal history in a way that Robertson, Smith and Raynal did not." "Voltaire ... question how to jundge the significance of a period or episode; ... his was a resolutely presentist history, which prioritized modern over ancient history and judged periods by their relevance to the development of human civilization and not incidentally to the development of Europe's own modern civilization in particular." "Dilthey was to deem Voltaire 'the first to attempt an account of the new universal history of human culture.'"


二十二、Margaret M. Mitchell and Frances M. Young. "Preface." The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 1: Origins to Constantine, 2006: xiii-xx. 书的导论,介绍本册的文章如何描述基督教从一个“counter-culture"的运动转化成为一个文化运动。提到原来保罗书信是我们现有的最早的基督教文献。

二十三、Frances M. Young. "Towards a Christian paideia." The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 1: Origins to Constantine, 2006: 485-500. 关于Origen教导学生的课程;是如何修改当世希腊罗马世界的一般课程,而使之作为圣经诠释的准备。

基督教作为一“教”:"Teaching and learning were characteristic of Christianity from the beginning. The term used in the gospels for the followers of Jesus is 'disciples' (mathetai), that is 'pupils', and Jesus himself is addressed both as 'rabbi' and 'teacher'. ... It is hardly surprising then, that correct teaching (dogma in Greek, doctrine in Latin) became a characteristic concern of early Christianity, and this made the church more like a philosophical school than a religious organization -- for it was not beliefs, doctrines or even ethics that characterised ancient religion, but traditional ritual practices performed in temples, shrines or households. Christianisation would eventually transform notions of what a religion is by emphasizing reeds and correct doctrine as conditions for practicing its cults."  

对圣经的三层理解:“Interesting enough, this suggestion coheres well with recent reassessment of the distinction, which Origen apparently makes in his writings, between different levels of Christian believer, classifying people according to their capacity to read scripture literally, morally, or spiritually. It seems that, so far from categorizing persons, Origen means to suggest that the three levels of meaning relate to three stages in an educational process."

总结:“Origen substituted the Bible for the literary canon of the Greek classical tradition. Scripture became the crown of his Christian paideia. The study of scripture became the source of all truth, and the justification of a lifelong process of spiritual exploration."


二十四、Michael Puett. "Classical Chinese Historical Thought." A Companion to Global Historical Thought, 2014: 34-46. 简要的导论,重点从西周到班固,后面提到了一下司马光。


二十五、Roger Wright. "Periodization." The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages, 2013: 125-142. 关于拉丁语到罗曼众语的转化,证据其实都在其书写方面!

p.115 "Using this criterion means that we are identifying a language with the orthographic system used to write it. Which is what happens in real life. Linguists complain, because we have been trained to think of writing as a relatively unimportant and even parasitic mode, but the normal assumption made in most literate societies is precisely that a different orthography implies a different language."

p.116 "in general, the only time a whole language is thought by its speakers to change, and thus to deserve to change name, is when the way it is written is changed."

p.121 "the thirteenth century brought several different Romance writing systems, deliberately standardized to some extent, and thus several different Romance languages. These are political events; ..."


二十六、Catherine H. Zuckert. "The Trial and Death of Socrates." Plato's Philosophers: The Coherence of the Dialogues, 2009: 736-814. 是作者对《Apology》、《Crito》和《Phaedo》三对话的解读。


二十七、毕沅等、“卷第四 太祖”,《续资治通鉴》,中华书局1957年版:77-102。记的是964年四月至966年底事。主线是破后蜀及因宋军在蜀地激起的叛乱;辅以辽主爱畋猎与饮宴和乌库部之乱。后蜀主到开封后被封秦国公后几天就去世,实在太可疑了,对照前面帝诏“朕不食言、尔无过虑”则宋太祖也应该不怎么守信。


二十八、Frances M. Young. "Prelude: Jesus Christ, foundation of Christianity." The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 1: Origins to Constantine, 2006: 1-34.前半写现代书写耶稣历史的困难。后半主要是说耶稣的教说是关于上帝和天国降临;基督教是基于耶稣--而关于耶稣的故事最奇特的,就是耶稣的复活。此在犹太教没有前例、在罗马希腊神话故事也没有。


二十九、Harold Bloom. "Introduction: Don Quixote, Sancho Panza, and Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra." Don Quixote: A New Translation by Edith Grossman, 2003: xxi-xxxv. 很典型的Harold Bloom评论,主要与莎翁/Hamlet比较。


三十、Alberto Varvaro. "Latin and the making of the Romance languages." The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages, 2013: 6-56. 此篇很长,更神奇的原来这册的论文,起码头三篇(包括上面二十五条Roger Wright的文章)的作者,都是研究拉丁到罗曼转变的专家,而三位的意见都是不一样的,互相之间有争论。此篇的论证大概是:
1)帝国各地被溶入罗马帝国的时间不一样
2)”拉丁化”是一个接受罗马帝国文化过程,主要是各地上层精英主动学习罗马帝国文化和拉丁语文,其中军人、政府官员、商人、基督教传教士等都有其作用
3)“拉丁化”从inscription的证据来看在各地都是一个长达起码3-4代人的过程,而社会阶层、甚至男女两性的拉丁化的速度都是不一样的
4)在“拉丁化”的过程之后的很长时间,本地或区域语言都是同时并存的、双多语是常态
5)对于拉丁区域差别的解释(并以此推测罗曼的起源),过去做过很多尝试,除了词汇上有明显的本地语言或Germanic语言的渗透外,所谓substrate或superstrate的理论都没有什么解析能力
6)p.27 "the linguistic features which can be used to localize a later Latin text ... are completely different from those found in earlier texts. Romance variation does not appear therefore to be the direct continuation of late substandard Latin."
7) p.27 "The hypothesis, which I advance here, that in the late Empire there was a linguistic level even below that of substandard Latin, which with some trepidation I hazard to call sub-substandard Latin, is based on the observation, which in itself is not that original, that there are a certain number of common features shared by all (or almost all) Romance varieties which are documented since the earliest written documents but which, however, fail to surface in any (or almost any) earlier Latin text." 作者后面举的例子是consonantal weakening, definite article, future tense
8) p.35 "In the spoken language these innovations must have been wide-spread in all areas, albeit not necessarily used consistently."
9) 以c395去世的Ammianus Marcellinus和c594去世的Gregory of Tours的历史著作比较,"The world, and perception and awareness of it, has shrunk extraordinarily." (p.40)
10) p.40 “As long as the area of reference had been the Empire, normative linguistic usage had been based on the idealized model of the imperial court.” 
11) 引用Antonion Tovar (1964): “‘… people who were not saturated with Roman culturee took the lead in the development of the language, and that rural tradition, hidden for centuries but keeping much of the linguistic habits of the ancestors and affecting Latin through generations of bilingualism, won the upper hand.’” (p.41)
12) p.41 “This was the real catastrophe … because it destroyed the structure of the whole system, changing or even turning on their head prestige relations and reducing the previous norm to a literary model.” (p.41)
13) 反驳Roger Wright (2003). 有趣的是:”… the revolutionary act was not so much the choice of a particular orthography, but rather the decision to treat a vernacular poem as if it were a Latin text and to put it in writing.” (p.49) “The stabilization of an orthography for the individual languages was a process that lasted centuries … But for centuries there was much experimentation.” (p.51)
14) Roger Wright的一句话我是同情的:“I still cannot help feeling that on the whole things would have gone better in Medieval Europe … the whole Romance speaking world had still preserved … only the old international written standard spellings of words, with all the attendant advantages.” (p.48) 这应该是阿拉伯文的情况。

关于拉丁语文的发展,作为读者我心里面一直使用的类比是英语文的发展 - 究竟我们现在是否站在与Ammianus Marcellinus类似的顶点?


三十一、Sheldon Pollock. "Introduction." World Philology, 2015: 1-24. 书是2008年在台湾的一个国际会议的文集,到2015年才出版!文章提倡“世界文献学”的学科提法,对Philology的定义是"the discipline of making sense of texts". 这是一个与我对世界人文学科的提法、对世界文化典籍的兴趣很有关系的论题。


三十二、Margaret M. Mitchell. "The emergence of the written record." The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 1: Origins to Constantine, 2006: 177-194. 简单介绍了保罗书信、各福音书、连带提到《使徒行传》和《启示录》等的成立。


11。《Extreme Poetry: The South Asian Movement of Simultaneous Narration》,Yigal Bronner著,2010年出版。想读此书已经几年了,之前曾经在离家很远的图书館翻阅过。这次买到旧书,并从头到尾读一遍。感想是:南亚大陆的文学传统实在特别发达,对此传统之前的西方研究(英国、德国大概搞了两个世纪),实在只能翻开此传统的冰山一角。


三十三、Michel Banniard. "The transition from Latin to the Romance languages." The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages, 2013: 56-106. 又一篇长文。重视的证据是“垂直沟通”(vertical communication)的程度,如St. Augustine的拉丁Sermon,是否在北非被当地群众理解。(答案是肯定的。)垂直这里取上层知识分子和下层文盲群众的沟通关系。在从3-4世纪开始、以基督教在西方的传播为考察对象,一直到9-10世纪,作者构建出一个语言因素变迁的“山边型多条S-curve模型",并勾勒出从3-5世纪开始的后期拉丁,转化为6-7世纪的更后期拉丁,到8-9世纪的原始罗曼的变迁。


三十四、Harry Y. Gamble. "Marcion and the 'canon'." The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 1: Origins to Constantine, 2006: 195-213. 介绍了名动一时的Marcion(活跃于约公元100年,持犹太上帝与耶稣上帝为二、前者为低且与基督教徒无关的观点),依照现代的研究发现他并非新约作为"canon"(固定和封闭的权威典籍列表)的作俑者;因为新约真正作为canon已经是公元5世纪的事。


三十五、Roger Wright. "Evidence and Sources." The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages, Volume II: Context, 2013: 125-142. 还是比较同意此子的观点。文章说的是:文字变化并非语言变化准确的证据,但研究拉丁到罗曼的转化只能依靠文字证据。一些有趣的数据和说法:
- "There is ... variation ... between the way the same individual speaks and writes in different circumstances." (p.125)
- "there are many kinds of spoken register and many kinds of written register." (p.127)
- "elementary students are not usually taught to write phonetic script. ... writing disguises speech rather than providing a photograph."
- Antonio de Nebrija: pioneering study of Spanish grammar in 1492; also prepared both a Latin-Castilian dictionary (1492) and a Castilian-Latin dictionary (1495) (p.131)
- "Thus there is no necessary direct connection between textual change and language change, and the relationship is not the same in every linguistic aspect." (p.132)
- "And yet spelling reform, however desirable it may seem to the outsider, always meets obstacles in practice, because in any language, for those who have learnt to read, it is naturally easier to read, as well as to write, the traditionally correct form, rather than a novelty inspired by phonetic transcriptions; while those who cannot read at all cannot read any form, so a form based on a phonetic transcription would be of no more use to them than the traditional counterpart." "The consequence is that phonetic change can progress a long way without evidence for it being directly attested in a written source." (p.132)
- "It is no coincidence that the earliest uses of the word romanz/romance (variously spelt) were all used to refer to the new modes of writing rather than to any kind of speech; the concept of 'Romance', semantically contrasted with 'Latin', had not existed before the new ways of writing had been deliberately invented." (p.140)
- "Such combination as we often see attested in the evidential sources from late Latin pre-reform documentation, of contemporary semantics, vocabulary, morphology and grammar with traditionally correct orthography ... is exactly what literate speaker/ writers of English ... etc, do every day of the week." (p.141)


三十六、Pier Paolo Vergerio. "The Character and Studies Befitting a Free-Born Youth." Humanist Educational Treatises, 2002: 1-45. 成文于大约公元1402-1403年,是写给一为王子(local "Prince" 的其中一位孩子)的论文。对"liberal arts"定义: "We call those studies liberal, then, which are worthy of a free man: they are those through which virtue and wisdom are either practiced or sought, and by which the body or mind is disposed towards all the best things. From this source people customarily seek honor and glory, which for the wise man are the principle rewards of virtue. Just as profit and pleasure are laid down as ends for illiberal intellects, so virtue and glory are goals for the noble." (p.14) 学的纲目是 “letters and arms" (p.18) 关于letters, 其目的有娱乐方面:“Yet if literary study offered no other reward -- ... -- the distraction it offers from the many things we cannot bring to mind without disgracing ourselves or remember without causing ourselves pain ought in any case to make it quite valuable enough." (p.21) 具体科目:history, (moral) philosophy, eloquence (part of civics), (不包括drawing), literature, disputation, (rhetoric 已经很少用), poetics, music, arithmetic, geometry, (natural) philosophy (=astronomy). 最后三科我知道是当时的博士学科,对王子是不太合适的:medicine ("its practice contains very little that is suitable for the noble mind."), law ("it is unseemly for those who handle cases to try to sell their efforts for a fee or settlement."), theology ("Divine science", or "metaphysics"). 文章提到很多当时对人类体质的一些观念,并如何因材施教,和如何作军训和什么消遣是允许等等,则不细说了。


三十七、Franco Montanari. "From Book to Edition: Philology in Ancient Greece." World Philology, 2015: 25-44。谈的是希腊化时代的埃及亚历山大利亚(Hellenistic Alexandria,一般不用Ancient Greece来表示)“发明”了文献学:就是概念上从“改正一个具体的抄本”跳跃到“修订一种文献”。(from “correcting a (single) copy” to "editing a text itself")


12。《The Routledge Concise History of World Literature》,Theo D'haen著,2011年出版。又是想买了好几年的书。主要介绍从Goethe以来,尤其是20世纪80年代开始的对“世界文学”的主要人物和观点。对我来说只是可以约略多知道一些比较文学名家的名字。一直我都认为,文科方面发起的什么解构、后现代、后殖民主义等等,都是在于文学已经被主流社会边缘化之后才出现;因此,就是文学的论述能照顾到殖民地区,这也主要是因为hegemonic的社会的人才,主要都已经不在这个方面发展了。


三十八、Leonardo Bruni. "The Study of Literature." Humanist Educational Treatises, 2002: 47-63. 成文于公元1422-1429之间,是写给一位贵族妇女的文章。

要学什么?"liiterary skills and factual knowledge" (p.48) 

文学修养怎样得来?"This then will be our first study: to read only the best and most approved authors. Our second will be to bring to this reading a keen critical sense." (p.49) "read well aloud" (p.50) "recite and memorize the quantity of every syllable, that is, whether it is long, short, or common." (p.51)

要学什么类型的知识?divinity, moral philosophy, history, oration, poetry; 不要太花时间在geometry, arithmetic, astrology, rhetoric (后者是男士辩论用的)[注意:这基本上非常靠近经史子集的分类了]

读谁的作品?文章里面提到过的名字包括: Sappho, Augustine, Jerome, Ambrose, Cyprian, Lactantius Firmianus, Gregory Nazianzen, John Chrysostom, St. Basil the Great, Cicero, Vergil, Livy, Sallust, Epicurus, Zeno, Aristotle, Tacitus, Curtius, Julius Caesar, Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Euripides, Plato, Ennius, Pacuvius, Accius, Seneca, Boethius, Socrates, Pythagoras, Bible, Statius, Democritus, Theophrastus, Varro. 相对比较重视的11位是 Augustine, Jerome, Lactantius Firmianus, Cicero, Vergil, Aristotle, Livy, Julius Caesar, Homer, Plato, Seneca


三十九、Denis Minns. "Truth and tradition: Iranaeus." The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 1: Origins to Constantine, 2006: 261-273. Iraneaus是早期基督教的一位重要神学家,此文主要说其两方面的贡献:1)奠定基督教承认的教典包括《旧约》和保罗、约翰等的作品;2)开展了比较成熟的关于三个位格、人的地位的神学讨论。"Irenaeus' focus on the unity of old and new covenants, and on the unity of the God who reveals himself in both, led him to believe that there is a single divine purpose, or economy, with a single object, the creation of humankind in the image and likeliness of God." (p.270)


四十、Thomas R. Trautmann. "Explosion in the Grammar Factory." Languages & Nations: The Dravidian Proof in Colonial Madras, 2006: 1-41. 很有趣的一本书、这是第一章。首先把Ptolemaic grid, Eusebian chronological canon, 和Mosaic ethnology ("Tree of Nations",或者说是《旧约圣经》里面对各族群起源的说明模式)都定义为“locational technology". 然后把历史语言学的18世纪的起源,通过考察Sir William Jones关于印欧语系猜想的著名段落,放在其整套文章、和18世纪其他类似的活动(尤其是提出马来语系和Gypsie源于印度的William Marsden)下来看,论证了历史语言学开端的动力是希望使用语言作为Mosaic ethnology的资料,并以此带出18世纪的这些发现,根本的技术是把语言还原为最基本词汇的Word List。而Word List的始作俑者,是莱布尼兹去世后才出版的文章“Appeal concerning languages of peoples"和《Nouveaux essays sur l'entendment humane》。  


四十一 - 四十二、《维摩经文疏》卷第九、卷第十。五年前我已经开始读卷第九(http://www.pkucn.com/thread-250270-1-1.html),后来放弃了。现在决定只是在Kindle上粗读,这两个周末每个周末读了一卷。这两卷是解释《方便品》的。


四十三、Johannes Kabatek. "Koines and scriptae." The Cambridge History of the Romance Languages, Volume II: Context, 2013: 143-186. 也许是此册关于罗曼成立的最后一章,一开始处理了Koines(口头通用语?)和Scriptae(大约是狭义的文献书写系统)的关系,然后提出罗曼书写的四个阶段:1)proto-Romance(明确是罗曼文的文献出现之前);2)'sporadic Romance'(稀有的、但现存罗曼文献和对当代人对罗曼作为拉丁之外的语文系统的认知);3)文献系列(尤其法律文献)的出现;4)罗曼与拉丁文正式分开,并在更多的用途上取代拉丁文的地位。文章最后部分把意大利、法国、和伊比利亚半岛的罗曼语区何时进入不同阶段和有什么重要的手抄文献证据提出了粗略的提纲。


四十四、Hans-Josef Klauck. "The Roman Empire." The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 1: Origins to Constantine, 2006: 69-83. 非常简单的谈到罗马帝国中央与地方的关系、文化和宗教的情况,作为早期基督教兴起的背景。


四十五、《维摩经文疏》卷第十一:解释《弟子品》的开始部分。以佛对心王,以十弟子对十心数(想数对富楼那、欲数对大迦叶、更乐数对迦旃延、慧心数对身子、念数对优波离、思数对罗云、解脱数对善吉、忆数对阿那律、三摩提数对目连、痛数对阿难)。“心王即正因佛性也、慧数即了因佛性也、余九数皆缘因佛性也。”卷后半解析净名过去斥舍利弗宴坐,约体用、法心、因果三双两法解释文句。


四十六、R.D. Hicks翻译,"Book I," Diogenes Laertius: Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 1925。读的是一两年前网上下载放到Kindle上面的10册电子书。此书是古代关于希腊哲学家的思想史,很有意思,关于其前言部分我已经写在博文里:
http://lawpark.jimdo.com/2015/05 ... us-book-i-prologue/
给我的感觉就是有点像中国的佛教的僧传、禅宗的灯录或是儒家的学案:有谱系、有分支、有传说、有年代、有对话、有文献、甚至还有盖棺定论的墓志铭文。第一册讲的是“七贤”(不是七佛!):Thales (强项是天文、几何;曾求学于埃及,七贤之首), Solon(雅典的立法者), Chilon, Pittacus, Bias, Cleobulus (也有埃及学习背景), Periander (Tyrant), Anacharsis, Myson, Epimenides (传说中一觉睡了57年、神仙似的人物), Pherecydes (于Pythagoras有关); 多于7人是因为不同的资料说的7位都不尽相同。从Diogenes Laertius给出的资料来源,关于哲学家的传承,应该是一个一直有的传统,因书同名为《Succession of Philosophers》的书不只有一种。


四十七、Anthony Grafton and Megan Williams. "Introduction: Scholars, Books, and Libraries in the Christian Tradition." Christianity and the Transformation of the Book, 2006: 1-21。基督教学术的开始,与书写格式从papyrus(卷)转为Codex(方册?)有关;Codex增大一本书的内容量(比较容易做成小图书馆(百科全书),并对表格体的学术著作出现有帮助。从书的内容,作者好像不知道比Origen早而并非用使用方册的司马迁已经用表了。

四十八、Yigal Bronner, David Shulman, Gary Tubb. "Introduction." Innovations and Turning Points: Toward a History of Kavya Literature, 2014: 1-31。全书800页左右,今天收到的书,先读了第一章,主要介绍了如何使用传统内部证据去挖掘文学史的创新和转捩点。全书重点围绕的是(与玄奘同时的)Bana。


四十九、Thomas R. Trautmann. "Panini and Tolkappiyar." Languages & Nations: The Dravidian Proof in Colonial Madras, 2006: 42-72. 关于印度古代语言学的发达,先是介绍Panini,然后提到非panini语法传统的存在,并指出Tolkappiyar(泰米尔语的第一本现存语法作者)与后者的关系。古代印度的语法,涉及多语言的时候(如Vararuci),从结构上一般是先讲梵语,然后是按结构关系从近到远的说各种Prakrits; 但泰米尔语是例外。再就是语音学,印度语音学(Phonology), 并蕴藏印度语音分析的Script, 对亚洲其他各地的影响,并指出欧洲19世纪语音学的繁荣,有其印度基础:Sir William Jones的对亚洲语言(梵语、阿拉伯语、波斯语)的transliteration(即字母转写),在很多方面一直使用到现在,其基础就是梵文的script。

另:文章还提到了一位David Pingree (1963, 1979)写古代科学史的。


五十、S. Frederick Starr. "The Center of the World." Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia's Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane, 2013: 1-27. 原来以为普林斯顿大学出版的应该是学术作品,买了才知道不是。比如说时间覆盖,书的重点说是公元750到1150年,就跟书的标题相差甚远;书也没有正式的书目;而同一个作品,如al-Biruni的《印度》一书的版本的Sachau翻译,在这第一章就有1887和1910两个日期。书覆盖的中亚成就方面包括:天文、数学、光学、医学、化学、地质学、地理学、历史、社会科学(人类学、比较宗教、比较语言学、政治学)、哲学、逻辑]、神学、Hadith、诗歌、建筑、绘画。


五十一、R.D. Hicks翻译,"Book II," Diogenes Laertius: Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 1925。七贤之后是关于Ionia的分支,从Thales的学生Anaximander开始(天文地理方面有成就),其学生Anaximenes(空气为第一原理),其学生Anaxagoras(把心[Nous,Mind]提到比物质更高的地位,有4元素的概念,对天文、动物起源、荷马诗歌都有speculations,晚年被审判),其学生Archelaus(把哲学带到雅典,开始谈道德),其学生Socrates(长篇,对其审判也有有趣的资料)。之后是Socratics, 第一位是Xenophon(第一位记录Socrates对话, 和写哲学家的历史,第一位Diogenes Laetius写上其书目并包括疑伪约四十本),第二位是Aeschines(也有写对话),第三位是Aristippus(Cyrenaic school的发起人,除了对话还写了利比亚的历史,此章包括Cyrenaic school的人物和其重视关于pleasure和pain的思想),第四位是Phaedo (也有对话,也有其学系), 第五位Euclides (不太确定他是否Socrates学生"He applied himself to the writings of Parmenides",有学系、对话;"He held the supreme good to be really one", 此章包括他的学系人物),第六位是Euclides学系的Stilpo(以论辩名动一时,也有自己学系,有对话,有传说Zeno the Stoic是其学生),第七位是Crito(有对话,其儿子也从学Socrates),其他是Simon, Glaucon, Simmias, Cebes, (此三基本只要简单的书目),第十一位Menedemus(Phaedo学系,又在Academy和从Stilpo学习,与Asclepiades两家同设household,最后绝食自杀)。


五十二、Benjamin Z. Kedar and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks. "Introduction." The Cambridge World History, Volume V: Expanding Webs of Exchange and Conflict, 500 CE - 1500 CE, 2015: 1-40. 此是今年新出版(五、六月)的一套7卷9册的大套书,属于我个人重点阅读的范畴,我先购入了我最感兴趣的第五册。此导论很有趣,首先是用词-大量的用到“Middle Millennium","eastern hemisphere"(我个人比较支持的是"old hemisphere"-因为在一个球体上东西只是约定俗成,而eastern hemisphere大概就假定人在伦敦、纽约或是冰岛,谈新旧,则从各角度都比较客观),"three oceans"等词。先谈到Middle Millennium的世界地图、然后是当时的世界历史(我对这几页当然最感兴趣),然后是现代出现的新发现的资料,再是文明圈偶然和经常性的接触,最后是书的组织和论文提要。书目也简短有趣的书目,如从1987年开始芝加哥大学出版的多册History of Cartography,我之前就没有听说过。


13. 《Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future》,Ashlee Vance著,2015年出版。很有兴趣的读完的一本一般来说我会当作“闲书”的书。主角因为因缘巧合,并非一位完全陌生的人;对于这位与我哥同年的人这20年的成就,我深深的被震撼了。正式成为他的粉丝。


五十三、Steven Johnson. "Glass." How We Got to Now: Six Innovations That Made the Modern World, 2014: 13-43. 公司送的书。听过他的讲座,最记得的就是他把显微镜和望远镜的发明的契机,都放到欧洲印刷图书的普及,使得很多人开始需要带眼睛;因为有眼睛工业的出现,其他的这些科学工具才会出现。另外有趣的是威尼斯的Murano小岛。


五十四、《维摩经文疏》卷第十二:解释《弟子品》的第二部分,解析净名过去斥目连说法(不当法相、不当根缘、不当佛心;总的就是不知大乘,文句多用约理、约实智、约方便三种解脱解析),和斥迦叶乞食避开富家(菩萨色与盲等)。


五十五、Bjorn Wittrock. "The age of trans-regional reorientations: cultural crystallization and transformation in the tenth to thirteenth centuries." The Cambridge World History, Volume V: Expanding Webs of Exchange and Conflict, 500 CE - 1500 CE, 2015: 206-230. 摘了一些在博文:http://lawpark.jimdo.com/2015/06 ... irteenth-centuries/

五十六、Patrick J. Geary等共11位作者. "Courtly cultures: western Europe, Byzantium, the Islamic world, India, China, and Japan." The Cambridge World History, Volume V: Expanding Webs of Exchange and Conflict, 500 CE - 1500 CE, 2015: 179-205。主要是提出宫廷是旧半球众文明区的共同现象,是上层争宠斗争,和礼仪文化活动的中心场所。太多作者、不是太有意思。

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